Tuesday, October 14, 2008

Medication Concerns Surrounding ADHD and Epilepsy

Medication strategies for ADHD Comorbid Disorders

In a previous post, we briefly discussed the challenge of medicating ADHD with a common coexisting disorder, namely Tourette's Syndrome. We saw that conventional medications that are often used in the first line of treatment for ADHD are often counterproductive if they make the accompanying disorders worse. Additionally, certain ADHD medications can pose increase risks or dangers to some of these co-occurring disorders. Several articles have been published on stimulant medications and their overall effectiveness and safety for epileptic patients. In this post, we will examine some of the strategies and concerns associated with treating Epilepsy occurring alongside of ADHD. We will tackle some of these medication questions in the second half of the post. However, in order to do this, however, we must first begin by discussing some relevant information surrounding the range, severity and diversity of the symptoms and underlying causes of these two disorders.

Like Tourette's, the disorder of Epilepsy also finds itself to be overlapping (or "comorbid") with ADHD. According to a study reported in the journal Archives of Disease in Childhood in 2005 done by Tan and Appleton, over 20% of individuals diagnosed with epilepsy have multiple symptoms of ADHD. Epilepsy, which is characterized by the presence of recurring seizures that are not provoked by external chemical or environmental triggers, is potentially the most dangerous comorbid disorder associated with ADHD. Further complicating this combination of disorders is the fact that a number of independent studies have linked stimulant drugs (which are often the primary mode of treatment for ADHD) to lowering threshold levels for seizures. As a precaution, stimulants such as methylphenidate are often avoided whenever possible in seizure-prone individuals.

However, relatively new evidence has shown that this may not necessarily be the case with regards to ADHD and comorbid epilepsy. It is important to note that a large number of studies linking stimulant ADHD medications to increased rates of seizures involved more "anecdotal" evidence of symptoms based on relatively small, non-random samples of individuals. While this information should not discredit the validity of these studies, it is important to realize that these studies do not carry the same amount of scientific "weight" as those of larger, randomized, population-based clinical trials.

Further complicating the issue is the fact that there are multiple subtypes, classifications and severity levels of epilepsy. For example, one of the milder forms of pediatric epilepsy is called CAE. CAE, which is short for Childhood Onset Absence Epilepsy, is characterized by short periods (typically less than 10 seconds) of lapses in consciousness, and is often accompanied by rapid or twitching eye movements. Unlike more severe cases of epilepsy, CAE is followed by an immediate full recovery in the individual. These short lapses, when not noticed or carefully observed are sometimes erroneously misread as ADHD since they do temporarily shut down memory, focus and attention, mimicking common ADHD traits.

Since the two disorders typically involve a completely different set of chemical signals, CAE individuals erroneously medicated for ADHD will naturally see little improvement with regards to either disorder. Of course, most competent trained professionals should easily be able to differentiate between the two (CAE episodes can typically be triggered and observed by inducing hyperventilation in a clinical setting, so a non-CAE individual with ADHD can quickly be separated out by this common procedure). Nevertheless, I feel that this possible misdiagnosis can be overlooked and is still worth mentioning. Also of interest in observing these two disorders is the fact that there is a gender bias for each one, although the biases are skewed in opposite directions. ADHD is seen much more often in boys than in girls (some medical professionals claim this ratio to be as high 4 to 1), while CAE is seen more frequently in girls.

Another common (and typically benign) form of epilepsy is called Centrotemporal or Rolandic Spikes. This form is often associated more with lack of facial control (partial facial paralysis and drooling), and physical speech impairments. It is believed that brain activity in many of these individuals, especially between episodes, is connected to a reduced attention span, similar to that of an ADHD individual.

Muddying this issue even further is the fact that these spikes are frequently seen in individuals who fall within the spectrum of autism. While diagnostic methods prohibit an individual from being concurrently labeled as both "ADHD" and "Autistic" (i.e., diagnostic criteria can only allow an individual to be labeled as one or the other but not both), it is important to note the large overlap of symptoms between the two. In other words, we have seen three disorders that all share a number of common overlapping symptoms.

These three disorders may even share a common genetic background. A genetic region on the 3rd chromosome identified as NHE9, has been suggested as having a possible association with ADHD. Another nearby region on the same chromosome has been tied to both autism and epilepsy, suggesting a strong possibility that all three disorders are at least in part tied down to a common genetic region. Since all three disorders are unique and often involve completely different sets of medications, it is easy to see that a misdiagnosis followed by a "mis-medication" can have profoundly negative consequences. With regards to this post, this means that individuals who do have ADHD and (appropriately) take stimulant medications may still see a relatively high frequency of epileptic symptoms, but these are often due to a common (and potentially genetic) underlying condition, and are often not due to the actual stimulant medications being administered for ADHD.

While there is the possibility of genetic overlap between ADHD and epilepsy, the two disorders typically follow completely different chemical pathways. ADHD is closely tied to two neuro-chemical signaling agents called dopamine and norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline), while epilepsy is typically tied to the neurochemicals Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA), as well as Glutamic Acid and Aspartic Acid (both of which are dietary amino acids, and are chemically similar to the questionable food flavoring MSG). Nevertheless, it is true that stimulant medications that are used to treat ADHD (such as Concerta or Ritalin), have been shown to counteract the effectiveness of some traditional anti-seizure medications, namely phenobarbitone (also referred to as BAN, Luminal or phenobarbital). However, these earlier-version anti-seizure medications are often replaced by newer Anti-Epileptic Drugs (AED's), most of which don't have these negative drug interactions.

Additionally, several studies have actually pointed towards ADHD stimulant medications helping with seizure-potentiating conditions. For example, in a 1992 article in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Wroblewski and coworkers observed that seizure-prone individuals with brain injuries actually saw a reduction in the number of episodes following the administration of the common ADHD stimulant methylphenidate. However, other related studies have failed to support these results.

Finally, it is also important to at least mention the possibility that stimulant medications used to treat ADHD may trigger seizures due to their well-known effects on the sleep cycle. While the exact causes of epileptic seizures are still unknown, it is worth mentioning that around half of these episodes occur either during or around periods of sleep. Additionally, sleep deprivation has been shown to increase the likelihood of seizures. It is my personal belief that we should never downplay these important facts and observations.

What I have really hoped to accomplish in this post is to provide you with a bit more background info surrounding ADHD stimulant medications and how some of the data connecting these drugs to increased seizures and epileptic episodes were acquired. Nevertheless, this was not meant to refute all claims that there is an increase risk of epilepsy that is involved by taking these medications, especially for those prone to seizures. Caution and careful monitoring by your physician are still paramount. It is my hope, and my main objective to simply arm you with a bit more information about these drugs, how they work, and how these common ADHD prescription medications can interfere with comorbid disorders such as epilepsy. Look for future posts for more "special cases" involving ADHD and other accompanying disorders.

ADHD medications

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Dannie Addison said...

There are many question raise for epilepsy treatment with adjunct therapy for partial seizures with or without secondary generalization in adults. Generic Pregabalin has also been found effective for generalized anxiety disorder.

Bronwyn Emmet said...

Who writes this blog? Are you a doctor?

Lucas Taylor said...

THERE IS A PERMANENT CURE TO EPILEPSY: My teenage son started having complex partial and simple partial seizures - he was having many a day. Our son's seizure is constant throughout the day according to EEG results. There are an estimated 60,000 children under 18 with epilepsy here in my state. We had tried all the usual medications on our son- nothing worked. Many of them made them worse. We just discover an herbal medicine that can cure Epilepsy. Our son has been completely cure of Epilepsy after 7months of treatment. The medicine is also cost effective. Don't ever give up his medicine a permanent solution to seizure. For more info Contact the Dr. Joseph on facebook (https://web.facebook.com/Permanent-CURE-to-Epilepsy-646916698795225/?fref=ts) or Email: drjosephbryan@gmail.com

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McAllister Craig said...

How my son survived epilepsy.
My son at the age of 13 suffered from terrible seizures as a result of the terrible condition called epilepsy and this was very humiliating and life threatening because he was continuously on life support drugs and medicines but none seemed to cure all they did was revive him and the seizure kept coming to him this lasted for 8 more years. The last time he had seizure in may last year i was called where i worked that my son had a terrible seizure, he was also revived from that but that day i wept. I was fortunate enough to explain my ordeal to a friend who invited Dr. Joseph who came and started treating my son with his medicine at our house for two months and in 3 months the seizure never happened again they were gone and even up till now he is very fine without any epileptic symptoms. Today he 22 and i believe he has been cured. Epilepsy has a cure simply try to reach the doctor on (josephalberteo@gmail.com) for more information about his treatment process or how to get his medicine. Do not give up on yourself, i hope my son's story motivates you.

Unknown said...

This information will help those inflicted/afflicted with epilepsy, my son is permanently cured. Check out this blog to learn more the herbal product, http://curetoepilepsy.blogspot.com/

Medical Careers said...

I like your blog a lot. Its informative and full of information. Thank you for sharing.

Francesca Mcniel said...

How my daughter was saved from grand mal seizure.
I am not really a fan of sharing my personal private story on the internet but i decided to do this because this joy is too voluminous for me to hide. My daughter which i took over 8 years after marriage to conceive had her first seizure at age 8 and ever since then it has been from one seizure to another in school, in church, at picnics. This got me worried because she has a bright future that i do not want epilepsy to become a hindrance, i tried several doctors in Texas and none could help with an effective cure. I went on the internet and saw testimonies about a treatment for epilepsy which a doctor offered and i was interested, i got in contact with him and i was able to get the medicine for my daughter which she used for 3 months as he instructed and it has been over 6 months now she is doing just fine without any allergies or aftermath effects. If you are suffering problem try to reach him too on (josephalberteo@gmail.com) i can count on him for a cure for you too.

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Amber Emile said...

I had an epileptic fit for the first time 5 years ago in the middle of supermarket on my birthday of all days, wasn't fun for my kids to see it, it still haunts, I've tried many anticonvulsants and had never been able to stop the seizures. Surgery was not an option. I was still an epileptic patient, who have completely lose hope. As the problem is always embarrassing and disturbing. While surfing the internet one fateful day, I learned about Doctor on the internet called Lawson. I contacted him with some info and I ordered for the Herbal medication and used the medication for 6 months, though hesitantly, considering the fact that I have done a lot of procedure. After which I went for medical test It worked! I've been seizure free, Over a year now, I have not show any symptoms of seizure and I believe I am cure if you want to contact him at this email dr.lawson52@gmail.com.+1(936) 657-1274


Am One of the happiest woman on earth since my son was cured from the problem of seizure,which he has been having for eight years now,he do have the attack two to three times a week,which is affecting is education and his life.i got the contact of a doctor from the post of one Mr smith thanking he for curing his seizure problem,i got the contact and contacted him then he made me to know that the medication is a permanent cure, and that was how i got the medication which i used on my son,and for six month now there have been no sign of seizure in him again.any one with such problem can contact him on his email drwilliams098765@gmail.com

marian jack said...

My son recently started having grand Mal seizures at 16 years old. We were prescribed Kepler. We decided NOT to take the medicine and go with a Modified Atkins Diet that entails feeding our son 15 carbs a day with lots of healthy fat. He eats a lot of grass fed beef, free range eggs, organic low crab veggies and is doing fantastic! We could tell a difference in him by the 3rd day. This is not alternative or junk science. Dr. Lewis hill at Johns Hopkins has been championing this diet for years and has been really successful. Doctors are really resistant to this therapy but it works!. Read "Grain Brain" for why it works. He also takes taurine which helped stop the night time teeth grinding, jerking, and unrest in his sleep (also known to stop seizures). And he takes cur cumin as a brain protestant that raises seizures.one day came across Albert post thanking Dr Lewis hill for curing his son seizure problem, and i got the contact of Dr Lewis hill i quickly contacted him then he made me to know that the medication is 100% permanent cure, and that was how i got the medicine which i used for my son, after which i took my son for medical test It worked! Over a year now, my son have not show any symptoms of seizure and I believe my son is cure if you need his help email him on drlewishill247@gmail.com or call him on +1(323)244-4884

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PAUL said...

NATURAL & EFFECTIVE TREATMENT TO SEIZURE: Our son has temporal lobe epilepsy, He has seizure and had a grand mal with rage episode (8 men to hold him down), Our son's seizure is constant throughout the day according to EEG results. We had used several medicine which include: 600 Epilem 100 topolex 150 Epitec X2 Daily Dopoquel and cilift, Keppra, Topomax lasted for about 3 days, but I put an end to that due to my son losing weight and being lethargic. I recently got dr williams herbal medicine,that's a natural medicine that cure my son Epilepsy with no side effect. It is an herbal medicine. it is a permanent cure and effective treatment of Epilepsy, for more info, you can contact Dr.William with this drwilliams098765@gmail.com for his product

karen dish said...

ALL THANKS TO DR WILLIAMS FOR THE GREAT DEED HE HAVE DON FOR MY FAMILY.This information will be useful for Epilepsy patients who is willing to use herbal medicine. My daughter had temporal lobe epilepsy, She had seizure and had a grand mal with rage episode. Our daughter's seizure is constant throughout the day. We had used several medicine which include: Epilim and Keppra, experience seizure control at the cost of serious debilitating side effects. It was during a casual conversation with a friend that I learned about herbal Dr. William, it does not have any side effect. I am glad to say that he has been seizure-free since July of 2016 after taking William medicine. this a miracle cure?contact him for more detail (drwilliams098765@gmail.com)

Makaya said...


I am sharing this story as a mother. It could help mothers out there who their love ones are going through pains from seizures. My baby girl was 4 years old when she had 7 episodes of epileptic seizures for straight 8 months. Six episodes were with fever and 1 seizure without fever. We used Valparin twice a day but my baby seizures got worse and she developed other health complications. My child was going through pain and I was afraid of leaving her alone to herself so I constantly watched her.
To help my child overcome these frequent traumas, I went in search of medication outside the English medications we had used without result. I was lucky to read in the internet about a mother whose 15 years old child was cured from epilepsy through herbal medication. I contacted the doctor through an email address I got from a testimony shared on the internet. I used his medication for my baby and the seizures stopped. I wanted to make sure that it has cured my child, so we went for EEG and MRI scan all reports showed normal!. My baby girl is 7 years seizure free., and I am happy to tell it to the world, that there is a cure! Don't give up on that situation. You may contact Mohan, where I found a cure for my child via drajaymohanbose@gmail.com

Mohammed said...

CURED FROM 10 YEARS EPILEPTIC SEIZURES. My story will help someone struggling in fear of seizures.
I was diagnosed of grand seizures disorder when I was 15, it was so frequent that I had more than 20 seizures in a month. Growing up knowing I was epileptic was a difficult thing for me and my family. My social life was censored by the sickness. I took various prescribed English medicines for close to 10 years, which caused a lot of complications for me without improvement. To survive my frequent seizures, I got a Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS) to help, yet there was no noticeable difference.
I have read stories on the internet of people who got cured from seizures and epilepsy. So I went in search for such solution. I got an email address from one of the testimonies shared about herbal medicine for seizures and epilepsy cure, I contacted the doctor and used his medicine. For more than 4 years, I have been totally seizure free. I got rid of the VNS which had been more than a burden. You may contact the doctor via drajaymohanbose@gmail.com

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We have Quality Rick Simpson Cannabis oil and medical marijuana for smokers, all types of cancer cure, insomnia,Diabetes,epilepsy,back pain,we also have the herbs that reduces stress and other illness. We are selling our products at very negotiable and workable prices. Apart from our very magnificent prices, when you buy from us, you are assured of the highest quality and purity available in the market,and we are 100% sure of our product, with a guaranteed discreet courier shipping or a special 24 hours confidential overnight delivery of the product to your address. We respect and value your privacy and will dont share your information with anyone. We offer discreet and Reliable packaging and delivery. -Fast and reliable shipment within 24hours within the US and 48 hours internationally, using courier service. Call or Text::::: +1936-2283-155, Email: devanshherbalheathcare@gmail.com for more information

Park said...

Ich habe endlich meine großartigen Anfälle genagelt. Ich war 17 Jahre alt, als ich von tonisch-klonischem Anfall diagnostiziert wurde. Und litt seit 15 Jahren daran. Es wurde so häufig; Ich hatte mehr als 20 Krampfanfälle an einem Tag. Ich hatte emotionale Schwierigkeiten, mit der Diagnose umzugehen; Mein gesellschaftliches Leben war sehr betroffen. Jedes Mal, wenn ich Anfälle hatte, wurde mein Leben in die Warteschleife gestellt. Vor meinen Augen stürmten meine Träume, ein NBA-Star zu sein. Ich nahm alle vorgeschriebenen empfohlenen westlichen Medikamente zur Genesung und hatte alle Arten von Komplikationen in meiner Leber. Ich gab auf, solche Medikamente zu nehmen und wollte etwas, das nicht zu meinem Problem hinzufügen würde, das schwer genug war, um damit umzugehen. Ich habe schnell gesucht, wo ich eine Heilung finden konnte. Ich war müde von der Behandlung. Ich war bereit, mit meiner Situation umzugehen. Zum Glück für mich sah ich ein Zeugnis von Kräutern, die bei der Heilung von Epilepsie ohne Komplikationen verwendet wurden, habe ich weiter gefunden, kontaktiert die Dr. verwendet von seiner pflanzlichen Medikamente innerhalb eines Raumes von 1 Monat, meine häufigen Anfälle verschwunden, der Fortschritt ist nach 3 Jahren geblieben . Müde Komplikationen und wollen eine Heilung, mach einen Schritt! Sie können Mohan kontaktieren, wo ich meine Heilung durch drajaymohanbose@gmail.com bekommen habe

jacky scob said...

Hello viewers all over the world am Jacky scob, I want to testify of what Dr Lewis hill did for me. i was having a very notorious and serious sickness called seizure and i was very in lost of hope i never believed i was going to be cured until i meant these great man called Lewis hill who God sent to help me cure my sickness . just a few moment with these great man he cured my infection His herbal remedy is the only permanent solution to Seizure. i want you to know that all hope is not lost until every thing is done if you also have these following infections contact his email drlewishill247@gmail.com

chirag devansh said...

We have Quality Rick Simpson Cannabis oil and medical marijuana for smokers, all types of cancer cure, insomnia,Diabetes,epilepsy,back pain,we also have the herbs that reduces stress and other illness. We are selling our products at very negotiable and workable prices. Apart from our very magnificent prices, when you buy from us, you are assured of the highest quality and purity available in the market,and we are 100% sure of our product, with a guaranteed discreet courier shipping or a special 24 hours confidential overnight delivery of the product to your address. We respect and value your privacy and will dont share your information with anyone. We offer discreet and Reliable packaging and delivery. -Fast and reliable shipment within 24hours within the US and 48 hours internationally, using courier service. Call or Text::::: +1936-2283-155, Email: devanshherbalheathcare@gmail.com for more information

Park said...


It is an honor to share this testimony, to tell the world my breakthrough story. I want to appreciate God for such privilege and also a thank you to the Admin of this great page. I hope this will help someone going through pain out there.

I was 17 years old when I was diagnosed of tonic-clonic seizure; and suffered from it for 15 years. It became so frequent; I had more than 200 seizures in a day. I was having emotional difficulties dealing with the diagnosis; my social life was extremely affected. Every time I had seizures, my life was put on hold. Before my eyes my dreams to be an NBA star was crashing down. I took all prescribed recommended western medication for recovery and had all manner of complications, in my liver. I gave up on taking such medications and wanted something that will not add to my problem which was hard enough to deal with. I did rapid search on where I could find a cure; I was tired of Pharm treatment and ready to deal with my situation. Fortunately for me, I saw a testimony of herbs used in curing epilepsy without complications, I did further finding, contacted the Dr. used his herbal medication within a space of 1month, my frequent seizures disappeared, the progress has remained after 3 years, till now, i have not had seizures, not even for a single day.
If you are tired of Pharm meds and its complications and seriously in need of seizure free life,take a step! You may read up his blog for more information via www.seizurecure.blogspot.com
you could just write via drajaymohanbose@gmail.com

Smith Elena said...

I had my first seizure. I was in high school and didn't want anyone to know that I had epilepsy. I had seizures on two occasions. I was so ashamed and didn't want people to think that something was wrong with me. I finally got to the point where I told people that I had epilepsy. I came to the place that I realized that I had to own my epilepsy or it would control me. Epilepsy hadn't really affected my life until about 9 years ago after my first child was born... I am a wife and mother of two beautiful children. I have lived with epilepsy for 20 years Yet, my life has been dramatically impacted by epilepsy. I had search for cure online without no hope. I met a Man called DR Lewis hill, i contact him I made an order of his medicine and I do not experience seizure anymore i was cured form it. So if you are in the same situation as mine contact him on this email drlewishill247@gmail.com

mattias lang said...

I am Matthias lang, from Orlando u s a, i suffered from epilepsy for 28 years, i lived in pain with the knowledge that i wasn't going to ever be like every normal human, i contacted so many doctors on this issue,and i have use so many western drugs prescribe by various doctors and all was no avail, because i was determined to get my life back, one day i was researching for this on internet and i saw a post about devansh herbal health care who cure different manners of diseases, including epilepsy, I contacted him via email: devanshherbalheathcare@gmail.com and made purchase of the epilepsy herb, i received the herb through USPS within 24 hours, when i received the herb i applied it as prescribed, and to god be the glory i was totally cured of epilepsy within 1 months of usages,my dear brothers and sisters You do not have to suffer more just contact him for his medicine on devanshherbalheathcare@gmail.com.com he will definitely put an end to that problem of yours

smith anderson said...

My daughter suffered from a terrible seizure for more than 9 years which started after she turned 7 we all thought it will end but got even worse as days went by. We tried all several treatments and therapy prescribed by various doctors we met but to no avail, she lost total concentration and screamed most times. She usually tells me she feel pain. This were steady pain that disrupted her entire life, even at night she screams even more because the seizure become painful because everywhere is quiet and she slept less because of this. I was able to contact Dr.lewishill. on the matter and his medicine was able to restore her back to normal and she is very okay now without any side effects whatsoever. If you have seizure, do not hesitate to contact him on drlewishill247@gmail.com for advice and for his product. I hope this helps someone out there.

Mariana Giovanni said...

My son was diagnosed with epilepsy in his early age (4years), there was no known cause or reason, many investigations have since taken place to achieve a diagnosis, It came from nowhere. I cannot describe to you how helpless we feel as parents, our happy life was turned upside down. We felt shocked, devastated and utterly helpless. All we could do was to hold and comfort him. His seizures contributed to his lack of developmental progress. If he was in the midst of doing something he would fall over or just curl up into a ball. I also have a Youtube video. It is a very difficult symptoms, despite continued medical intervention we are unsuccessful in stopping her seizures. We have tried multiple medicines, including CBD and a special diet, but all to no avail. Dr. Allen!!!, your input bring about his recovery. I will forever be indebted to you. I was delighted to share this information to Epilepsy Research UK, and I would urge anyone who also have same symptoms to try such a worthy path because this is the only way to improve the lives of those diagnosed with epilepsy. To get more information, write drallenchase@gmail.com