Sunday, October 26, 2008

The Effectiveness of Adderall as an ADHD Medication

Adderall as an ADHD stimulant medication

Adderall is one of the most popular (and currently one of the most "trendy") types of ADHD medication. As a stimulant drug, Adderall is chemically and functionally similar to other ADHD stimulants including Ritalin, Dexedrine, Concerta or Focalin. However, while most of these medications contain either one or two compounds, Adderall technically contains eight. It is a combination of four different types of amphetamines (in the salt form) and their chemical "mirror images".

A bit of a side note on "mirror images" and drug chemistry: For reference sake, consider your left and right hands. They are identical in structure, but mirror images of each other. This mirror image effect plays an important role in pharmacology, and separation of the two mirror images can be extremely important. For example, one mirror image of the pregancy drug Thalidomide was used to treat morning sickness, while the other mirror image was linked to birth defects. Fortunately this grave difference between mirror images is not seen with ADHD stimulant medications. Some ADHD drugs, such as Dexedrine or Focalin only have the "right hand" form, which have different (and often more potent) properties than the "left hand" form. Nevertheless, both mirror images of each of the 4 different amphetamines are seen in Adderall, making it a combination of 8 distinct compounds.

Returning to the main topic, this post will be focusing on the overall effectiveness of the ADHD stimulant Adderall. This information comes from a large review done in 2002 in the Journal of Attention Disorders by Faraone and Biederman. A short synopsis of the orignal article on the medication Adderall and ADHD can be seen here. Please note that these studies focused primarily on the effectiveness of Adderall vs. a placebo and not Adderall vs. other ADHD medications. There actually are studies out there comparing stimulant medications for ADHD, which will be covered soon in later posts.

Also, the form of Adderall used for this review was the standard release version. No slower/extended release (Adderall XR) analyses were covered. Given the time of this publication, Adderall XR data was still scarce. Since 2002, this has changed, and additional insight will be covered in future posts. For now, I will be highlighting some of the main findings of the article below:


  • Adderall outperformed the placebo in a statistically significant manner for both academic and behavioral improvements. These improvements were seen by all three monitoring groups: parents, teachers and clinicians, and were consistent, even among the several different ADHD rating systems used by the three groups.
  • Additionally, consistency was seen with regards to the effectiveness of Adderall regardless of whether the stimulant medication was administered via fixed-dose (a set dosage for test subjects) or via "best-dose" (the dosing was tailored to the individual by considering the size and gender of the individual, history of other medications taken and the responsiveness to these medications). This suggests the possibility that Adderall may have a more flexible range of effective dosing than most other ADHD drugs.
  • The study identified that there is often an inherent clinical bias in reporting the effectiveness of medications because "success" stories in which ADHD medications are effective are naturally published more often than for "failed" studies. A correctional factor (described in the article) was used to counteract this implicit effectiveness bias. Just keep in mind that published results are often not a full representation of data from the full spectrum of studies.
  • Adderall treatment (at various doses) appears to be almost as effective in treating aggressive behaviors as in treating ADHD. This spells good news for individuals with ADHD who also exhibit potentially violent or overly-aggressive behavior.
  • Although parents, teacher and clinicians all saw improvements with regards to ADHD across the board, the highest levels of measured improvement was typically seen by those in the medical profession. Parent and teacher evaluations showed similar levels of improvements with respect to each other, but their results were often not as pronounced as those done by clinicians.
  • In addition to clinician reports giving higher ratings, the mode of measurement for ADHD symptom improvement was also a factor. Symptom ratings scales, refer to a reduction in negative symptoms associated with the disorder. They do not take into effect things such as improvements in school or improvements in social skills, as these are more difficult to monitor as measurable "symptoms".
  • By contrast, global ratings also incorporate factors in addition to the symptom ratings. In addition to measuring levels of "sickness" like symptom ratings, global ratings measure more degrees of "wellness", such as the social or academic improvements mentioned above. As a result, global ratings typically offer a wider spectrum and offer a more complete and detailed portrait of improvements following modes of treatment for ADHD. Not surprisingly, due additional improvement categories which can be measured, global ratings typically result in higher rating scores of medication effectiveness than do ADHD symptom studies.
  • Based on the layout and distribution of the data, and the overall high level of agreement in the results of multiple unrelated studies, the authors of the article concluded that additional studies on the topic of Adderall medication vs. placebo are unlikely to refute these results.

These results support the idea that ADHD treatments with Adderall are statistically superior to controls (i.e., it is highly unlikely that improvements along the spectrum of undesirable behaviors and effects of ADHD are due to the "placebo effect"). As a result, it is apparent that Adderall has solidified its place as a valid and viable treatment option for ADHD.

Nevertheless, we must now begin to focus on the overall safety of this ADHD drug, and how Adderall stacks up against other ADHD stimulant medications such as Ritalin, Focalin, Concerta, or Dexedrine. Please check for more posts addressing these two key areas in the near future.









Add to Technorati Favorites

33 comments:

Unknown said...

I knew Adderall was a combination, but I didn't know until now that it's EIGHT things.

No wonder it's a common approach and fairly popular with both prescribers and patients.

One of those 8 things is going to help some people. They may only need 1 of those things. But if you put all 8 in one pill, you find success with WAY more patients.

But then what negative effects might they have from the 7 things they don't need?

I'm not sure this is a good approach. They could do this with antibiotics, I suppose. But they don't do that.

Interesting.

[DesertDave]

The ADHD Treatment Guide said...

Sorry Dave, I originally had some wrong info. Adderall is actually a combo of 5 different amphetamine salts, not 8, as mentioned in the post. Some of them are identical as far as their chemical make-up but exist as mirror images of each other (think of your left and right hand, while they have the same structure, one is essentially a mirror image structure of the other but is not identical).

As an aside, this mirror image thing can actually be a major complication in the drug world. In the early 60's it was discovered that the drug Thalidomide, which was often prescribed as a morning sickness treatment for pregnant women, and contained a mixture of both mirror images was actually causing a number of birth defects. It turned out that one of the mirror images was highly teratogenic (something that causes birth defects).

For Adderall, there the mirror image thing is not nearly as severe, however, we have recently found that the "right hand" forms of these amphetamines is typically much more effective as a treatment option for ADHD. As a result, some newer medications, such as Dexedrine, contain only the more active isolated "right hand" forms of the drug and are often a lot more potent as treatments.

muebles madrid online said...

I totally match with anything you have written.

John Scott said...

The Peruvian Indians chew coca leaf as a mild stimulant and it helps them to run long distances faster and longer than they would be able to otherwise. That's great, but they also become dependent on the drug of the leaf, which is not the equivalent to, but similar to cocaine in the human brain. The same can be true of stimulant drugs. Yes, they do help some children perform better in school and focus, but they are also relying on a cocaine-structured drug for that improved performance. Is that the best course? There is much that can be done to overcome symptoms of ADHD without drugs. I feel that is a much wiser course rather than experimenting with children.

muebles guadalajara said...

Goodness, there's so much effective information here!

comprar yate said...

Thanks so much for the post, really effective data.

Obat Kutil Pada Bibir Vagina said...

good blog goodnight all

Kizi200 said...

Play the Best Free Games! We've picked out the racing games, cooking games, candy crush, games shooting, fashion games, ...
Thanks for sharing !
Kizi 200
Friv 1
Y88
Y9

Unknown said...

Not all are true. Everyone has their own way of thinking but I think they have to reconsider. I like to argue for the most accurate results.
http://fivenightsatfreddysplay.com

Anonymous said...

Adderall is the brand name of a prescription medication used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults,
Adderall is a combination of two stimulant drugs, amphetamine and dextroamphetamine.
it has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

buy adderall online

Unknown said...

buy ritalin Online
Ritalin (methylphenidate) 10mg is used to treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) & (ADD) in children and adults.
Buy Ritalin 10mg online (Methylphenidate) all in USA, when doctor may recommend counseling, behavioral therapies, or other treatments.
,go to website & placing order now

James Njenga said...

adderall weight loss is possible because of appetite suppression and the increased metabolism rate that these adhd drugs bring about

Akami Ayurveda said...

I came across through your blog. I found the useful information about ADHD Disease & Treatment.
Ayurvedic treatment for brain stroke

canadiapharma said...

it's a good information of adderall. thank's to sharing with us, keep sharing


Buy Adderall online

Muhammad Hassan said...

Wow! Such an amazing and helpful post this is. I really really love it. It's so good and so awesome. I am just amazed. I hope that you continue to do your work like this in the future also how long does adderall stay in your system

Eddam Clark said...

Every prescription pill we offer delivers its best. Whether Adderall or Hydrocodone, no matter what you order, every step taken with us is good and you can be sure to treat your disease or disorder. Take a step further by ordering any of your pills online on our website.

We Onlinemedzonline pharmacy, are focused on the growing out of pocket prescription market, with a mission to provide affordable healthcare to every American. We take pride in providing customers with personalized service. Our highly skilled team of professionals provide the highest quality of care when customers need it most. All our products, prescription drugs and over-the-counter items, are FDA approved and legal for sale in the United States.

Buy Adderall Online

To get discounted prices, Visit Now...

Meds Blogger said...

buy Pain Pills online

buy Roxicodone online

buy Xanax online

buy Oxycodone online

fake money for sale


buy Counterfeit online

buy Research Chemicals online

buy Pain Killers online

buy Counterfeit Money online

buy Quality counterfeit bank Notes online

buy Adderall online

buy LSD online

buy steroids online

buy Sex Pills online

buy Methadone online

buy viagra online

buy coke online

buy Subutex online

buy Sleeping pills online

buy French bulldog online

buy english bulldog online

buy maltese online

USA REALIST said...

buy Pain Pills online and Research chemicals 
buy Roxicodone online 

buy Roxicodone 30mg online

  buy Xanax online  

  buy maltese and Pomeranian puppies online    
 buy Medical Marijuana online
buy Weed online
  BUY LSD BLOTTERS online    
buy OXYCODONE online 
buy Norco online 

Generichub said...

Yellow Xanax
order yellow xanax online overnight delivery
order tramadol online usa
2mg xanax bars
buy tramadol online safely
yellow xanax online without prescription
green xanax green xanax bars green xanax bar
fioricet online

Generichub said...

100 surity to buy hydrocodone online
xanax bars in usa
buy soma bars online overnight
green xanax bars without prescription with credit card
buy hydrocodone online without prescription 2020

Generichub said...

green xanax bar overnight delivery with credit card
buy xanax alprazolam online without prescription
203248 Green Xanax Bar Without Prescription Overnight Delivery
203678 Buy Hydrocodone Online Without Prescription Overnight

xanaxonline24x7 said...

white xanax bar overnight shipping
white xanax bar
xanax bars white
green football xanax
white xanax bars online
white xanax bars g3722
buy xanax alprazolam online without prescription
buy hydrocodone online with credit card
white xanax bars without prescription
green xanax bars

xanaxonline24x7 said...

white xanax bar overnight shipping
white xanax bar
xanax bars white
green football xanax
white xanax bars online
white xanax bars g3722
buy xanax alprazolam online without prescription
buy hydrocodone online with credit card
white xanax bars without prescription
green xanax bars

xanaxonline24x7 said...

white xanax bar overnight shipping
white xanax bar
xanax bars white
green football xanax
white xanax bars online
white xanax bars g3722
buy xanax alprazolam online without prescription
buy hydrocodone online with credit card
white xanax bars without prescription
green xanax bars

xanaxonline24x7 said...

buy white xanax bars without prescription
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar

xanaxonline24x7 said...

buy white xanax bars without prescription
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar

xanaxonline24x7 said...

buy white xanax bars without prescription
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar
buy white xanax bar

xanaxonline24x7 said...

Buy Xanax Online No Prescription
Where To Buy Xanax Online
Buy Xanax Online With No Prescription
Buy Cheap Xanax Overnight Shipping Online
Buy Xanax Online Forum
white xanax bars without prescription
White Xanax Bars Without Prescription Overnight Delivery
White Xanax Bars G3722 People Shoudld Know About It
Fake Green Xanax Bars Truths Or Myth
Green Football Xanax People Should Know That

xanaxonline24x7 said...

Buy Xanax Online No Prescription
Where To Buy Xanax Online
Buy Xanax Online With No Prescription
Buy Cheap Xanax Overnight Shipping Online
Buy Xanax Online Forum
white xanax bars without prescription
White Xanax Bars Without Prescription Overnight Delivery
White Xanax Bars G3722 People Shoudld Know About It
Fake Green Xanax Bars Truths Or Myth
Green Football Xanax People Should Know That

xanaxonline24x7 said...

Buy Xanax Online No Prescription
Where To Buy Xanax Online
Buy Xanax Online With No Prescription
Buy Cheap Xanax Overnight Shipping Online
Buy Xanax Online Forum
white xanax bars without prescription
White Xanax Bars Without Prescription Overnight Delivery
White Xanax Bars G3722 People Shoudld Know About It
Fake Green Xanax Bars Truths Or Myth
Green Football Xanax People Should Know That

Generic Medication said...

Buy genuine medications online at the lowest prices. We sell medicines for different conditions like pain relief medicines, sleeping pills, anxiety medications, weight loss pills, detoxifying medication, and many others. We are one of the USA’s most trusted and most extensive online pharmacy and a global leader of quality medicines. Our most selling products include Xanax, Adderall, Ambien, Oxycodone, Methadone, and Tramadol.

Visit Here-Genericmedzonline.com

Contact Us- Sale@genericmedzonline.com

Buy Xanax Online
Buy Tramadol Online
Buy Adderall Online
Buy Soma Online
Buy Ambien Online
Buy Vicodin Online

admin said...

We sell discreetly and do stealth shipments to customers with no package sign-off upon delivery

Our services…

* Good and #Affordable prices.
* Fast and Stealth delivery - #Tracking Available!
* Various Discreet Shipping option (Overnight and Normal Plan ).
* No Prescription Required ( No Rx )
* Offers Reshipment if the package does not get to location or refunds

Contact us Securely : keys2inquiries {at }gmail (.)com |
- Wickr: { keys2pharm }


Cryptocurrency PAYMENTS only



- Ambien 10mg,
buy ketamine belgium
Uses of adderall

- Dilaudid 8mg,
- Fentanyl Patches 100mcg,
- buy hydrocodone in Florida ,
- Methadone 10mg,
- buy Morphine in USA ,
- Opana ER 40mg,
- Oxycotin 80 mg,
- Percocet 5/325mg, 10/325mg ,7.5/325mg,
- Ritalin 10mg,
- buy Meth online ,
- Roxicodone 30mg,
- Vyvanse 50, 70mg,
- Alprazolam 2mg / Green Bars / Green hulk bars/ S 90 3 bars,
- MDMD capsules 180mg pure

Contact us Securely : keys2inquiries {at }gmail (.)com |

Alarico Adalbert said...

It is no secret that I have a very deep and personal relationship with God. I have pushed and resisted that relationship this past year through all the bullshit I have had to go through living with Herpes but once again, God is bigger than my stubbornness and broke through that outbreak cold sore and all I had Genital Herpes. For me personally, hearing over and over how I am not good enough has really invaded my mind in the worst way possible. I completely shut down and I was just waking up like is this how life going to end this temporary herpes outbreak “fuck everybody with herpes if you know what I mean” but let's be honest here...
It is a cowardly to say no to herbal medicine. It is fear based. And it is dishonest to what my heart wants. Don't build a wall around yourself because you are afraid of herbals made or taking a bold step especially when it's come to health issues and getting cure. So many young men/ women tell me over and over that Dr Itua is going to scam me but I give him a try to today I feel like no one will ever convince me about herbal medicine I accept Dr Itua herbal medicine because it's cure my herpes just two weeks of drinking it and i have been living for a year and months now I experience outbreak no more, You can contact him if you need his herbal medicine for any such diseases like, Herpes, Schizophrenia,Cancer,Scoliosis,Fibromyalgia,Fluoroquinolone Toxicity Syndrome Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva.Fatal Familial Insomnia Factor V Leiden Mutation ,Epilepsy Dupuytren's disease,Desmoplastic,Diabetes ,Coeliac disease,Creutzfeldt–Jakob,,Lyme Disease,Epilepsy, ,ALS,Hepatitis,Copd,Parkinson disease.Genetic disease,Fibrodysplasia disease,Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Men/Woman infertility, bowel disease ,Huntington's disease ,Diabetes,Fibroid. disease,Lupus,Lipoid Storage diseases( Gauchers disease),Polycystic Disease.,Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy, Ataxia,Cirrhosis of Liver,Arthritis,Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis,Alzheimer's disease,Adrenocortical carcinoma.Asthma,Allergic,HIV, Epilepsy, Infertility, Love Spell,. Email..drituaherbalcenter@gmail.com then what's app.+2348149277967.... My advice to any sick men/women out there is simple... Be Always an open book. Be gut wrenching honest about yourself, your situation, and what you are all about. Don't hold anything back. Holding back will get you nowhere...maybe a one way ticket to lonelyville and that is NOT somewhere you want to be. So my final truth...and I'm just starting to grasp this one..